Compare and contrast chinese and European means and motives for commercial expansion

1 Answer

  • Means: European technological advances gave them advantages over Chinese in terms of animal and machine power they could generate, allowed them to offset Chinese advantages in manpower; both civilizations possessed shipbuilding and navigational skills and technology.  

    Motives: Widespread support for expansion in Europe among merchants, national leaders; looked for opportunities for expansion of Christianity; looked for expansion of plantation economy; Chinese expansion was project of one emperor, not merchants or scholar-gentry; already possessed sufficient markets; wanted money for defense.